[2]:Chp8 P.W. For example, in rural areas and small towns, where there may be no public prosecutor available, police personnel could institute criminal proceedings. [10], On 21 March 1960, SAP officers in the Transvaal township of Sharpeville opened fire on a large anti-apartheid protest outside of the local police station, killing 69 demonstrators and injuring 180 others. [2]:Chp3, In October 1978, Deputy Defence and Intelligence Minister Kobie Coetsee was appointed by Prime Minister P.W. KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa, Transkei, and Venda, and was renamed the South African Police Service. (Some volunteering and been called up more frequently.) He increased the recruitment of black police personnel, formed a civilian riot-control unit that was separate from the SAP but worked with it, developed a code of police conduct agreed upon by a number of political parties and communities, and substantially increased police training facilities. A youth wing of this reserve force reported that it had inducted almost 3,000 students and young people to assist the police during the late 1980s.[14]. BOSS also attempted to kill Bafana Duna, the African National Congress representative to Swaziland, but he survived with a lost arm. Although the Afrikaners were the minority ethnic group in the country, the Afrikaner National Party gained control of the government in 1948. [3]:438, The 19 May 1969 saw the introduction of the Security Services Special Account Bill and that would pass into law on 16 June 1969, and saw the use of money allocated to BOSS as confidential and not subjected to an audit by the Auditor-General as with other government departments. 1 review Winter blows the whistle on his career as a journalist working for the South African intelligence forces during the Apartheid years. Police Action Against Black South Africans . [6]:162 The now newly named National Intelligence Service was announced on the 6 February 1980. It led to the political and economic discrimination which separated Black (or Bantu), Coloured (mixed race), Indian, and White South Africans. The South African Police were the successors to the police forces of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal Colony in law enforcement in South Africa. Formed following a need to defend the border between South Africa and Rhodesia during the Rhodesian Bush War, the Special Task Force were unofficially founded in 1967, and began to be trained to use advanced tactics, such as survival and bush skills, to carry out COIN operations, and drastically reduce police casualties - this unit was known as the 'Bliksems'. A finger printing office was established in Pietermaritzburg in 1900, a year before Britain’s Scotland Yard followed suit, and by 1925 several offices had mushroomed, necessitating the creation of the South African Criminal Bureau. [3]:437 Military Intelligence's (MI) budget was reduced from R830,000 the previous year to a R39,000 a which would lead to continuous struggle for power between MI and BOSS throughout the seventies. The following people have served as the Commissioner of the South African Police:[7][8]. Botha had decided to split the intelligence gathering ability of South Africa amongst four agencies, the DMI, BOSS/DONS, Security Branch and Foreign Affairs, hoping to reduce the political dominance by one over the others, but the rivalry would continue. [2]:105 The SAP originally policed cities and urban areas, while the South African Mounted Riflemen, a branch of the Union Defence Force, enforced the state's writ in rural areas. [15] During the late 1980s, the Hammanskraal college saw a large enrollment of black policemen.[16]. In 1996 the combined active and reserve police represented a police-to-population ratio of almost 4.0 per 1,000. The public schools that replaced the mission schools were funded via a tax paid by black South Africans; the monies raised were inadequate to maintain the schools properly. Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. By 1926, the South African Mounted Riflemen were disbanded and their duties were taken over by the South African Police. He also established police/community forums in almost every police station. We based our discussion on Feld’s (2010) article American Jews and the Struggle Over Apartheid. South African police have made important strides to achieving democratic policing and the South African people have acknowledged such progress through their acceptance of the new South African Police Service. Peter Hain, a South African exile, became the public face of the movement, leading a successful effort to get the South African cricket and rugby teams banned from Britain. They were formed either to carry out a specific task or to deal with a particular area of crime. [2]:Chp4 It was believed that it was predetermined that the DMI would be the lead intelligence agency. Beyond the conventional police functions of upholding order and solving crime, the SAP employed counter-insurgency and intimidation tactics against anti-apartheid activists and critics of the white minority government. After the Soweto Uprising on 16 June 1976, hundreds of young people left the country to join the liberation movements in … DT1757.C52 2011 968.05 2010050190 Tricks of the trade included rape, torture and killings. The police were authorised to act on behalf of other government officials when called upon. [2]:Chp2 As the BOSS head Hendrik van den Bergh was a close ally of the Prime Minister, it was seen by Military Intelligence as a foregone conclusion that BOSS would achieve favour. 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