Magnificat is a joyous celebration of the Virgin Mary, inspired by feast-day festivities in countries such as Spain, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Arie (Bass) „Qui Bach scored the work festively. Fecit potentiam - All 11. [33] In Bach's autograph, the four movements are grouped at the back of the volume. Later the orchestral writing thickens, returning from the. For a Christmas celebration the same or a later year, he performed it at the Nikolaikirche with the insertion of four seasonal movements. The first recordings in the 1960s combined the version in D major (BWV 243) with transposed Christmas interpolations. "[47], In 2015 John Butt and the Dunedin Consort released a recording of the E-flat major version in the context of a reconstructed Christmas service as it might have been heard in Leipzig in 1723. [18][19], Being a quintessential part of vespers, evensong or matins, the Magnificat was, already for over a century before Bach's composition, the liturgical text that was most often set to music apart from the Mass ordinary. In this second of three blocks for the singers, the only text they sing is a repetition of the word "magnificat". They are written in older musical styles than most of the Magnificat movements. [96] LP recordings of the early 1950s included live performances of the Magnificat directed by Otto Klemperer and by Herbert von Karajan, the last one with Elisabeth Schwarzkopf as soprano. The second motif, later sung on "potentes", begins with an upbeat of three 16th, followed by a rhythmic pattern which expands both the lowest as the highest note, while the continuo moves in steady steps down. After the Reformation, Martin Luther kept the Magnificat in the liturgy. Et Exultavit - All 6. N. Jenkins)", "Brich dem Hungrigen dein Brot BWV 39; BC A 96 / Cantata", "Bach Cantata Translations / BWV 243a – "Magnificat" (E-flat Major)", "Bachs Es-Dur-Magnificat BWV 243a – eine genuine Weihnachtsmusik? [88], The D major version of Bach's Magnificat didn't appear in print before the Bach-revival that followed Mendelssohn's 1829 performance of the St Matthew Passion. Kuhnau's Magnificat, on the other hand, has a format much like Bach's: … The first time the Christmas hymns of the E-flat major version of Bach's Magnificat were printed was in the same volume as the D major version of the Magnificat, in the 1862 Bach Gesellschaft XI/1 publication, which presented the hymns in an annex. [72] In the D major version these strings play con sordino, flutes doubling the violins. For a performance at Christmas he inserted four hymns (laudes) related to that feast. [21] Beginning in measure 10, the voices enter, again half a measure apart, with the bass beginning. In the Gospel of Luke the words of the Magnificat are spoken by Mary when she visits her cousin Elizabeth, both being pregnant, Mary with Jesus and Elizabeth with John the Baptist. Suscepit Israel (He hath holpen his servant Israel) is scored for an unusual combination of the three highest voices and two oboes in unison (a single trumpet in the E-flat major version). The Magnificat was sung at vesper services on feast days, and, as suggested by recent research, Bach's setting may have been written for a performance on 2 July, celebrating the Marian feast of the Visitation. The same edition printed the Christmas interpolations for the first time. [13] The musicologist Alberto Rizzuti compared the two settings which were possibly performed in one service on 2 July 1724. The continuo part is played by organ, bassoon, cello and violone in most movements. Philippe Herreweghe leads Collegium Vocale of … The canticle was often set to music. The first motif, later sung on "Deposuit", begins with a short upbeat and a long note, followed by a straight downward scale[26] and a final leap up, while the continuo presents a broken triad, straight upward one octave. Quia Respexit (Soprano Solo) von Lynda Russell. Esurientes - Alto solo 5. 2 soprano solo voices, alto solo voice, tenor solo voice, bass solo voice, SSATB choir and piano accompaniment sheet music book by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750): Edition Peters at Sheet Music Plus. [26] Steinberg comments that Bach took the idea of separating the two words from the rest of the verse from earlier models, but filled it with an "exciting sense of drama" by the piled-up entrances in a "tremendous march across key after key", leading to "tense dissonances", finally a "dramatic pause" before the last statement. [77][78], After the composer's death the autographs of both the E-flat major and the D major version of the Magnificat were owned by his son Carl Philipp Emanuel. BACH MAGNIFICAT SO 28.10.2018. Für Soli (SSATB), Chor (SSATB), Orchester und Orgel (lat). for soprano or mezzo-soprano solo, SATB chorus and either full orchestra or chamber orchestra Minimum recommended string forces for the chamber ensemble are 2.2.2.1.1. 76 - Little Magnificat in A minor [LP] J.S. The second and 11th movement are in the same major key, the third and the 10th movement are in the relative minor key. Bach sets this first laudes a cappella in four parts, and, like the two preceding movements, in the tonic key. He did the same in his funeral motet Jesu, meine Freude. The utterly effortless register shifts in the second aria 'Hochster, mache deine Gute' have to be heard to be believed. The opening movement Magnificat anima mea (My soul magnifies the Lord)[25] is performed by all voices and all instruments except the recorders. [26], The second part, Sicut erat in principio (as it was in the beginning)[25] repeats material from the beginning of the work but shortened, as a frame. Quarter of a century later Bach returned to the chorale melody of "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", writing a set of five canonic variations on that theme (BWV 769), one of a few compositions printed during the composer's lifetime. Bach used recorders also in his later cantata Brich dem Hungrigen dein Brot, BWV 39. [6] A week later he led the new cantata Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76, again in 14 movements. Et Misericordia - Tenor solo 10. The new text, dispersit (He has scattered),[25] appears in various voices as broken triads, juxtaposed to material from the first section, but then isolated, in a sequence from the highest voice to the lowest and in downward triads. This version, including the Christmas interpolations, was given the number 243.1 (previously 243a) in the catalogue of Bach's works. In Latin, the last word is inanes (empty-handed). [30] The strings, as the only other instruments, play repeated notes in every measure, moving one step down or up in the next. The work is concluded by a choral doxology (12), which ends in a recapitulation of the beginning on the text "as it was in the beginning". [10] When Kuhnau died in 1722, one of the candidates applying for the post of Thomaskantor was Christoph Graupner, a former pupil of Kuhnau, who reused a Magnificat he had composed for Christmas 1722 as an audition piece in January 1723, three weeks before Bach presented his audition cantatas Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe, BWV 22 and Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23. (Sleeve)", Magnificat E-flat major and Christmas hymns, Von Himmel hoch (SATB) / Freut euch und jubiliert (SSAT, continuo) / Gloria (SSATB with colla parte instruments & violino obligato) / Virga Jesse (fragment – S, B, continuo), "Magnificat Es-Dur BWV 243a (mit den vier Einlagesätzen: Vom Himmel hoch / Freut euch und jubilieret / Gloria in excelsis / Virga Jesse floruit). Verse 10 and doxology (movements 11 and 12): movements two and three, both for solo soprano, build up to the Omnes generationes choral movement No. [26] Gloria is first presented as the major chord repeated three times, with a dotted note on the first syllable. The feast of the Visitation, celebrated always on 2 July, was a few weeks later the first Marian feast day of his tenure in Leipzig.[7]. [9][11] In a vespers service on 25 December 1723, he performed the cantata Christen, ätzet diesen Tag, BWV 63, and the Magnificat at the Nikolaikirche, on 26 December the cantata Darzu ist erschienen der Sohn Gottes, BWV 40, in the Thomaskirche. [99][100], The earliest LP-releases that contained the Christmas laudes of BWV 243.1 inserted them, transposed, in the D major version BWV 243.2 of the Magnificat. Bach's Magnificat consists of eleven movements for the text of Luke 1:46–55, concluded by a twelfth doxologymovement. Choral movements are evenly distributed in the structure, numbers 1, 4, 7, and 11 within the canticle, and the concluding doxology as movement 12. "[26], The work is concluded by the doxology, Gloria Patri (Glory to the Father),[25] performed by the ensemble in two parts. Jones assumes that the "bassett" of the unison strings symbolizes the divine quality of mercy. Chor, Solo: „Fecit potentiam” 4. The D major version of Bach's Magnificat (BWV 243.2) may have been performed on 2 July 1733, as part of the church service in the St. Thomas Church (Thomaskirche) in Leipzig. [116] The "synthetic" D major version, that is the D major version of the Magnificat with the Christmas laudes transposed to fit in that version, now published both by Novello and Bärenreiter, found performers and audiences. Another German libretto paraphrasing the Magnificat, published by Picander in his 1728–29 cantata cycle for performance on 2 July 1728, may have been set by Bach. In this block the chorus takes a leading role, limited groups of instruments accompanying with short ideas taken from the opening tutti, until in the last two measures all instruments join, ending with the second main motive played by trumpet I in measure 60. After a shorter ritornello, the tenor sings the complete text again, the first part in a slightly modified version, but the exaltation considerably expanded. BWV 606 (in the Orgelbüchlein), 700, 701, 738 and 738a are chorale preludes based on the "Vom Himmel hoch" theme. The Vulgate version translates as "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to people of good will", while the end of the Greek version is rendered more correctly as "Peace on earth, and good will towards men", as it was understood by Luther ("Friede auf Erden und den Menschen ein Wohlgefallen"). This 1990 recording by French conductor Philippe Herreweghe and his historical-instrument Collegium Vocale of J S Bach’s familiar ‘Magnificat’ offered some new perspectives. Das Magnificat von John Rutter ist eine Vertonung des biblischen Gesangs Magnificat, die 1990 vollendet wurde.Die ausgedehnte Komposition in sieben Sätzen ist gesetzt „for soprano or mezzo-soprano solo, mixed choir, and orchestra (or chamber ensemble)“ (für Solo-Sopran oder Mezzosopran, gemischten Chor und Orchester (oder Kammerensemble)). In this form Helmuth Rilling's recording with the Bach-Collegium Stuttgart and the Figuralchor der Gedächtniskirche Stuttgart appeared in 1967 with a performance time of 40:06. The chorus also sings in movement 4 (Omnes generationes), accompanied by an orchestra without trumpets and timpani, and in movement 11 (Sicut locutus est), there only accompanied by the continuo. Released: 2009. [41] Bach's Magnificat was performed several times in the last quarter of the 19th century, for instance in Germany and the Netherlands. The traditional setting of Luther's German translation of the Magnificat ("Meine Seele erhebt den Herren") is a German variant of the tonus peregrinus, a rather exceptional psalm tone in Gregorian chant. [34], The earliest sources are autographs for the performances on 2 July and 25 December 1723, including the Christmas parts, kept by the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. [72], Deposuit potentes (He hath put down the mighty) is an aria for tenor, accompanied by continuo and unisono violins, presenting material in a 14 measure ritornello. The Christmas hymns are always in the same key as the preceding movement. [80], A new critical edition of both BWV 243.2 and 243.1 was published in 1955 as Series 2, Volume 3 of the New Bach Edition. [62] This edition also offered a transposed version of the Christmas 1723 laudes so that they could be fitted in performances of the D major version of the Magnificat. 4, movements five (solo) and six (duet), build up to the 7th tutti movement, movements eight and nine (both solo movements), followed by an aria for vocal trio, build up to the final two choral movements, Verse in minor key (mvt. Bach composed particularly demanding and difficult works in his first year in Leipzig in 1723. Besetzung. As natural trumpets were usually tuned in D in Saxony,[61] this is given as a reason why Bach transposed the initial E-flat major version to D major.[62]. It is a chosen opportunity to give more than ordinary attention to the Magnificat canticle in liturgy, while the feast celebrates the event tied to its origin. In many of these settings a single verse of the Magnificat can be sung by one or more soloists alternating with choral singing, as Bach does in his treatment of the third Magnificat verse: the soprano sings the first words of the verse, while the chorus concludes it. [11][21] The work contains, other than typical cantatas on Baroque poetry, no da capo arias. Magnificat anima mea Dominum ("My spirit gives great praise to the Lord", Luke 1:46) is the text used for the opening chorus. More recently publishers offer such transposed (and completed) versions of the hymns, so that they can be performed as part of the D major version of the Magnificat, for instance Novello in 2000 (Neil Jenkins) and Bärenreiter in 2014. [110], Novello published both the E-flat major and the D major version of the Magnificat in a single publication in 2000, edited by Neil Jenkins. [32], Gloria in excelsis Deo (Glory to God in the highest)[25] is set for SSATB and violins in E-flat major, on the text from the Christmas story, the Annunciation to the Shepherds (Luke 2:14). 2 Violini. The first three choral movements are, in the version without the Christmas hymns, followed by two movements for a vocal soloist, the second one often with richer scoring. Two recorders (flauto dolce) are required for aria No. [85][86] It was the first composition of Bach for vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra that was printed in orchestral score,[87] but at the time this publication had little success in sales. These include the Magnificat, first written in E flat major and reworked about eight years later into the present D major version.This work requires an experienced chorus, as the parts are almost instrumentally conceived and rich in coloratura writing. [62], Philippe Herreweghe's 2002 recording of BWV 243.1 with Collegium Vocale Gent was released by Harmonia Mundi in 2003. Omnes generationes (Chorus) von The Sixteen. [8] An early account of Bach showing interest in liturgical practices in Leipzig dates from 1714, when he noted down the order of the service on the first Sunday in Advent during a visit to the town. [30] It was Alfred Dürr who noticed the similarity of the continuo parts of both pieces. [23] The last column, Dig, provides a link to the Bach Digital database, for more details such as scoring and the text. The Christmas additions are separated by two Magnificat verses, the first addition being after the second verse. 77–83, Kündlich groß ist das gottselige Geheimnis, Magnificat in D major BWV 243, Complete Recordings 1900–1949, Magnificat in D major BWV 243, Complete Recordings 1950–1959, Magnificat in D major BWV 243, Complete Recordings 1960–1969, Magnificat in D major BWV 243, Complete Recordings 1980–1989, Magnificat in D major BWV 243, Complete Recordings 1970–1979, Magnificat in D major BWV 243.2, Complete Recordings 1990–1999, Bach Johann Sebastian – Leipziger Weihnachtskantaten, "Bach's Magnificat: The Gramophone Choice", "Weihnachtsoratorium beliebteste Bach-Handschrift im Internet", "Bach: Magnificat – Buxtehude: Magnificat anima mea. Contemporary extended settings include works by Heinichen and by Vivaldi. Magnificat - Bach by Choral Music Practice Files, released 04 November 2017 1. In a final sequence beginning in measure 21, the voices enter from bottom to top on the same note, only one beat apart. Measure 46–60: after the sopranos recapitulate the start of the movement with their voices, and a brief intervention by the orchestra in measures 47–48, the second main motive is sung again, first by the highest voices in measure 49, followed by the lower voices in measure 50. [4][37] The E-flat major version of the Magnificat including these interpolations is known as BWV 243.1 (previously BWV 243a). Nach dem Urtext der Neuen Bach-Ausgabe. The instrumental ritornello of 14 measures presents the material. Kuhnau's Magnificat setting also used a SSATB choir. [26] When the singer takes over, the violins accent the end of each motif one to three by a broken downward triad. 8) → two movements in the same major key (9, D), Measure 1–30: the orchestra presents itself with what looks like a. [114], Facsimiles of Bach's autographs of both versions of the Magnificat became available on-line. [72] The setting has been likened to a turba chorus as used by Bach in his Passions. 2755, Fascicle 1 (formerly Mus. The text is part of a longer hymn, beginning like Virga Jesse floruit. Kuhnau's Magnificat has standard SATB soloists, but like Bach's, a SSATB choir. [100] The first recording on period instruments of Bach's Magnificat, with the four choral Christmas interpolations (BWV 243.1), was released by Simon Preston and the Academy of Ancient Music in 1978 (L'Oiseau Lyre / Decca), coupled with Vivaldi's Gloria. Nach dem Urtext der Neuen Bach-Ausgabe. Für Soli (SSATB), Chor (SSATB), Orchester und Orgel (lat). (1862) Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe, Band 11.1. Bach had taken up his post as Thomaskantor in Leipzig on 30 May, the first Sunday after Trinity in 1723. Kuhnau's has five choral movements, like Bach's, but his second is verse 4 (instead of 3b for Bach), and his last is only verse 12, where for Bach that final chorus sets both verse 11 and 12. The answer: Bach's Magnificat, a joyful and moving 30-minute work scored for a celebratory crowd of five soloists, a chorus, and an orchestra with trumpets and timpani. [118] In December 2016, Bach's autograph of the D major version of his Magnificat was among the top three most visited scores at the Bach Digital website. The structure, alternating choral and solo movements, is similar to "contemporary Italian concerted settings of the Magnificat". All parts sing "Dominum" (the Lord) only once, soprano II beginning with a long note continued by a melisma in measure 73, the others in 74. Bach's son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach followed the example of an extended setting, composing a Magnificat in nine movements in 1749,[16] at the end of his father's life. Ähnlich wie beim Magnificat seines Vaters Johann Sebastian Bach ist der Text der Komposition auf mehrere unterschiedlich besetzte Sätze verteilt.. Chor „Magnificat“ Arie (Sopran) „Quia respexit“ Measure 16–30: in measure 16, almost imperceptible in the whirling movement of other instruments, violin I presents a new motive: it is the second main motive. [69] When inserting the Christmas hymns, building up to the seventh movement alternates arias with choral movements, while in the second half of the composition the choral movements at the outer ends are separated by a set of four arias: solo → solo → duet → trio. [8][9][10] According to some scholars, further feast days included New Year's Day, Epiphany, Feast of the Ascension, Trinity Sunday, St. John's Day and St. Michael's Day, and the vespers before the feast days. J.S. The five voices are two sopranos (SI, SII), alto (A), tenor (T) and bass (B)). [65][115] Bärenreiter published a critical edition of all score versions, based on Dürr's 1955 edition, again in 2014/15. My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord. Movement A (Vom Himmel hoch) is the only a cappella movement. [5] In April he was accepted for the post, which he assumed on the first Sunday after Trinity, presenting a new cantata in 14 movement, Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, on 30 May. 30. Viola 5 Voci è Continuo", translating to: Jesu Juva ("Jesus, help!") Toni cum canticis Ecclesiasticis, Magnificat (with German interpolations for Christmas), SSWV 299, "Die Leipziger Neukirchenmusik und das "Kleine Magnificat" BWV Anh. [49][50] Similarly, a Meine Seele erhebet den Herrn cantata by an unknown librettist for Visitation 1725. Et Exultavit - Soprano solo 7. [29] They often play in parallels of sixths and thirds. A less extrovert way routine of Bach 's, a SSATB choir who in fact handles most of word! 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